Selasa, 16 Desember 2008

Cake Batter Using Powder Emulsifier

LOWCALORIECHEMICALLYLEAVENED CAKES AND SURFACTANTSYSTEMSTHEREFOR

Referensi :






This is a continuation-in-part of application S/N 07/370,918 filed June 23, 1989. Background of the Invention

1. Field of the Invention

The present invention is concerned with reduced calorie, organoleptically acceptable cake products wherein substantial reductions in high calorie cake ingredients (e.g., shortening and sugar) are possible through incorporation of relatively minor amounts of expanded liquid or gel mesophase emulsifiers into the cake batters. More particularly, it is concerned with such cakes, and the starting batters, wherein sweetening agent is reduced to a maximum of about 50% (flour weight basis) and shortening is substantially if not entirely eliminated through use of an appropriate emulsifier system; bulking agents are also added to ensure appropriate cake structure.

2. Description of the Prior Art

In recent years, there has been a tremendous increase in public awareness of proper nutrition and its affect upon general health. As a conse¬ quence, consumers have increasingly sought reduced or low calorie foods. At the same time, however, most consumers will refuse low calorie foods if they do not substantially duplicate the taste and organoleptic qualities of their traditional high calorie counterparts.

The task of formulating low calorie foods which meets the dictates of consumer preference is a challenging one. Simple reduction of high calorie ingredients may result in loss of appearance, flavor and texture.

Traditional premium, rich, layer cakes of the high-ratio variety (i.e., with a sugar content of, e.g., 100-135% flour weight basis and substantial shortening) have a caloric value ranging from about 350-500 Calories per 100 g. of cake. Thus, while cakes of this character are deemed delicious to contemporary tastes, they can be a substantial factor in unwanted obesity.

Significant efforts have been made in the past towards develop¬ ment of reduced calorie cakes. Most of these efforts have involved attempts at using substitute materials in lieu of ingredients such as shortening, eggs and sugar.

For the most part though, this prior work has not really satisfied the demand for an organoleptically acceptable cake product having substantially reduced caloric content.

One difficulty associated with low calorie cake development is that different types of cakes develop structure in very different ways. Thus, sponge cakes on the one hand have substantial egg content and the egg protein matrix is used to entrap air during batter formulation. Layer type cakes on the other hand generally have lesser egg content, and do not depend solely on an aerated egg fraction. As a consequence, a particular system or formula used in sponge cakes for calorie reduction may be totally inapplicable in the context of layer-type cakes.

U.S. Patent No. 4,427,237 describes hydrated emulsifiers for use in flour based baked goods. The emulsifier products described in this patent include a combination of known emulsifiers, present at relatively high levels; correspondingly, the water content of these emulsifier products is lowered. In the examples set forth in this patent, the water content of the emulsifier compositions range from 59.1 to 88.57%. Although this patent mentions the goal of calorie reduction, the anticipated level of reduction is less than desirable.

U.S. Patent No. 4,688,519 describes reduced calorie cookies of specialized composition. However, those skilled in the art recognize that cookie doughs are relatively low water compositions which are distinctly different than aerated cake batters.

Accordingly, there is a real and unsatisfied need in the art for reduced calorie cake products which meet the demand for consumers for pleasing taste, texture and eye appeal. Summary of the Invention

The present invention overcomes the problems outlined above and provides improved low calorie aerated cake batters and resultant cakes of high quality. Broadly speaking, the invention provides a method of preparing a low calorie, chemically leavened cake batter wherein an expanded liquid or gel mesophase emulsifier product is preformed by mixing quantities of an appropriate emulsifier and water, followed by optional heating and cooling of the mixture to

form the additive emulsifier product. The preformed emulsifier product is then mixed with other cake batter ingredients including flour, chemical leavening agent and bulking and sweetening agents. The sweetening agent is limited to a maximum of about 50% (flour weight basis) in the batter, more preferably from about 0.1 to 50% (flour weight basis) and most preferably from about 5 to 40%

(flour weight basis).

The batter ingredients are then subjected to significant mixing so as to assure an even dispersion of the ingredients and to give the resultant cake the desired structure. A variety of emulsifiers can be used in accordance with the present invention but preferably the emulsifiers are polar and hydrophilic. Non-limiting examples of emulsifiers are sucrose esters, distilled monoglycerides, mono-and diglycerides, lecithin, polysorbate 60, polyglycerol, the stearoyl lactylates, and mixtures thereof. The expanded liquid or gel mesophase emulsifier products is added to the batter in such amount as to provide an emulsifier content in the batter of from about 0.5 to 4%, and more preferably from about 1.5 to 2.5% (flour weight basis).

Various optional ingredients can also be employed in the cake batters of the invention, such as salt, flavorings, gums, shortening (in reduced amounts), egg and milk proteins (e.g., casein or whey protein concentrate), and mixtures thereof.

Cakes in accordance with the invention exhibit substantially reduced caloric values e.g., up to about 200 Calories per 100 g. of cake, and more preferably from about 100-200 Calories per 100 g. of cake. Description of the Preferred Embodiments

The expanded liquid or gel mesophase emulsifier products useful in the cake batters of the present invention are typically made by initial mixing of an emulsifier and water, followed by optional heating and subsequent cooling. In this regard, it is preferred to heat the water-emulsifier mixture, but sufficient energy input to the system may be achieved through intense mixing, so as to eliminate the need for heating. The resultant emulsifier products would typically

include from about 96 to 99% by weight water, and more preferably about 97.5 to 98.5% by weight water, although more concentrated compositions could also be used. Correspondingly, emulsifier product would comprise from about 1 to 4% by weight emulsifier, and more preferably from about 1.5 to 2.5% by weight thereof.

The water-emulsifier mixtures which are subjected to a heating step are heated until they achieve a noticeable thickening, which involves heating to a temperature from about 40 to 80°C. The mixture may be periodically stirred during the heating process. When the thickened mixtures are allowed to cool to approximately ambient temperature, an expanded liquid or gel mesophase is formed. This product is stable in a final batter to assist in formation of desirable bubble foams.

As indicated above, a variety of emulsifiers can be used in the present invention. Two particularly preferred emulsifiers, however, are the sucrose esters and emulsifiers containing monoglycerides. Commercially available emulsifiers of this character are the VANALL and F-160 emulsifiers. The VANALL product is a hydrated blend of sorbitan monostearate, mono and diglycerides, and polysorbate 60. The product is commercialized by Patco Products of Kansas City, Missouri, and is known to be useful in shortening-type and sponge cakes. It is a creamy white soft plastic paste having a saponifaction value of 45-55, and iodine value of 1.5% maximum, 70% maximum volatiles, and a pH of 4.5-5.0. Under law, it may be used up to 3.1% of the dry weight of finished chemically leavened cake products.

The F-160 sucrose ester emulsifier is commercialized by Dai-Ichi Kogyo Seiaku Co. and is a nonionic sucrose fatty acid ester emulsifier derived from pure sugar and tallow. The product contains about 70% monoester, and about 30% di-, tri-, and polyesters. It has an HLB value of about 15, and the fatty acid composition is approximately 70% stearates and 30% palmitates. The F-160 emulsifier is in powder form, has an acid value of not more than 5, and a free sucrose content of not more than 10%.

Another type of useful emulsifier is the Alphadim 90SBK monoglycerides. Alphadim 90SBK is commercialized by American Ingredients Co. of Kansas City, Missouri, and is a high purity monoglyceride prepared from fully hydrogenated soy oil and glycerine. It is a white to cream colored fine bead and has a saponification value of 150-165, an iodine value of less than 3 and a 90% minimum alpha ester content. In practice, this emulsifier is neutralized by using water having sufficient base therein to give a pH of 8-9 in the preparation of the preformed emulsifier of the present invention.

The expanded liquid or gel mesophase emulsifier products of the invention are employed in an amount to give the resultant batter an emulsifier content of from about 0.5 to 4%, and more preferably from about 1.5 to 2.5% (flour weight basis).

In preferred batter formulation procedures, most (e.g., 60 to 100% by weight), if not all, of the ultimate water content of the batter is derived from the preformed emulsifier products. In particular, the moisture content of the batter is variable depending upon the desired characteristic of the final cake product. However, the water content of the batter would generally range from about 100 to 200% (flour weight basis).

The sweetening agent fraction of the batters of the invention can be derived from a wide variety of sources. For example, use can be made exclusively of high potency sweeteners such as heat-encapsulated aspartame, acesulfame K, cyclamates, chlorinated sugars (sucralose), L-sugars, dipeptides (alitame), thaumatin and mixtures thereof. In such cases, the sweetening agent level would be very low, typically on the order of 2 to 7% (flour weight basis) in the batter. Normally, such usage would also require provision of bulking agents for structure in the cake, and these can be selected from the group consisting of sorbitol, lactitol, polydextrose, maltodextrose, fluffy cellulose, maltitol, mixtures of

-D-glucopyranosyl-1, 6-mannitol and -D-glucopyranosyl-1, 6-sorbitol, mixtures of sorbitol and hydrogenated saccharides, cellulosic or hemicellulosic agents, modified carbohydrate and mixtures thereof. Typically, such bulking agents would be present at a level of up to about 96% (flour weight basis) in the batters, and more

preferably from about 50 to 95% (flour weight basis) when sweetening is accomplished strictly through the use of high potency sweeteners.

In other instances, sweetening can be derived from multiple sources, such as through a combination of sucrose and a high potency sweetener, or by use of certain types of bulking agents with specific sweeteners. As little as

5% (flour weight basis) sucrose along with an appropriate quantity of high potency sweetener can in some cases give improved cakes. In such cases the quantity of bulking agents employed would correspondingly be reduced. For example, in batters making use of small quantities of sucrose, the bulking agents may comprise a combination of maltodextrin (having a DE of less than 20), polydextrose, maltitol, Palatinit (a commercial product consisting of an eqimolar mixture of -D- glucopyranosyl-1, 6-mannitol and -D-glucopyranosyl-1, 6-sorbitol) and Lycasin (a commercial product comprising 76 to 88% sorbitol, hydrogenated di-, tri- to hexasaccharides, and 15 to 23% hydrogenated higher saccharides). As indicated previously though, the level of sweetening agent should not exceed about 50% (flour weight basis) in the batter, and more preferably from about 0.1 to 50% (flour weight basis), most preferably from about 5 to 40% (flour weight basis) therein. Sweetening agent usage above this level would normally involve use of substantial quantities of high calorie sweeteners such as sucrose with the result that the aims of the invention would be substantial¬ ly frustrated.

The chemical leavening agent used in the batters of the invention is not critical, but preferably a conventional double acting baking powder is employed, typically at a level of from about 5 to 12% (flour weight basis). While the goal of calorie reduction dictates minimization of high calorie ingredients, organoleptic properties may be substantially enhanced through provision of relatively small amounts of ingredients such as shortening at a level up to about 10% (flour weight basis). Other options include gums such as xanthan gum (0.01 to 1.0%), whey protein concentrate (0.01 to 20%), and flavorings such as vanilla extract (1 to 7%), wherein all of the foregoing percentages are on a flour weight basis.

The cake batters of the present invention also normally contain whole eggs, although such is not absolutely essential. When eggs are used, the level of incorporation is from about 5 to 90%, and more preferably from about 30 to 75% (flour weight basis).

The following Examples set forth presently preferred yellow cake formulations in accordance with the invention. It should be understood that the examples are illustrative in nature, and should not be considered as limiting the overall scope of the invention.

Example 1

A dry, less fragile yellow cake in accordance with the present invention was made using the following ingredients:

In redient Wt. . % fwb

The water and emulsifier are first mixed and heated until a phase change occurs, about 50°C. The emulsifier-water mixture is then allowed to cool to ambient temperature and forms an expanded liquid or gel mesophase emulsifier product.

All other dried ingredients are mixed at speed 2 of a Kitchen Aid

5C mixer for one minute. All other ingredients, including the emulsifier gel, are added to the dry ingredients, with further mixing at speed 2 for 30 seconds. The mixing bowl is then scraped, with subsequent mixing at speed 10 for two minutes. The bowl is then scraped, followed by further mixing at speed 10 for an additional

2 minutes. 400 g. of the resultant aerated foam batter is then poured into an 8 inch round layer cake pan, followed by baking at 350°F. for 35-40 minutes.

The resulting cake has an approximate calculated caloric value of 168 Calories per 100 g. of cake. The cake exhibited a volume index (AACC Method 10-91) of approximately 120. The cake had very acceptable organoleptic qualities.

Example 2

A dry, slightly moist and fragile yellow cake was made using the following ingredients:

Ingredient Wt.g. %, fwb.

Cake flour

(Pillsbury Sno-Sheen)

Double Acting Baking Powder

Salt

Maltodextrin (DE 18) NutraSweet Encapsulated Aspartame

Vanilla Extract

Xanthan Gum

Whey Protein Concentrate

Polydextrose Water

F-160 Sucrose Ester Emulsifier

Whole Egg

The cake was made exactly as described in Example 1, giving a volume index of 137 and an approximate calculated caloric value of 178 Calories per 100 g. of cake. The organoleptic properties were acceptable.

Example 3

This cake was excellent texture-wise but mouth-drying was noted and flavor was less good.

Ingredient Wt..g. %. fwb

Cake flour

(Pillsbury Sno-Sheen) Double Acting Baking Powder

Salt

Xanthan Gum

Whey Protein Concentrate

Whole Fresh Egg Polydextrose

Water

Sucrose Ester F-160 Emulsifier

Lycasin

Acesulfame K

The cake was prepared as in Example 1. Volume index was 101; approximate caloric value was 184/100 g. cake.

Example 4

This cake was a very fine and even one of the highest quality cakes.

Ingredient Wt.,g. %, fwb

Cake flour

(Pillsbury Sno-Sheen) Double Acting Baking Powder

Salt

Xanthan Gum

Whey Protein Concentrate

Whole Fresh Egg Polydextrose

Water

Sucrose Ester F-160 Emulsifier

Sucrose

Lycasin Acesulfame K

The cake was prepared as in Example 1. Volume index was 102; approximate caloric value was 181/100 g. cake.

Example 5

Cake with excellent fine, even cell structure; slightly moist; not too fragile, one of the best cakes.

Ingredient Wt.,g. %, fwb

Cake flour

(Pillsbury Sno-Sheen) Double Acting Baking Powder

Salt

Xanthan Gum

Whey Protein Concentrate

Whole Fresh Egg Polydextrose

Water

Sucrose Ester F-160 Emulsifier

Sucrose

Acesulfame K

The cake was prepared as in Example 1. Volume index was 105; approximate caloric value was 182/100 g. cake.

CHEESE STICK USING ARISTO CROISANT

Receipe :

Tepung protein tinggi 1000 gr
Air 550 gr
Gula 30 gr
Garam 15 gr
Kuning telur 80 gr
Unsalted Butter 80 gr
------------------------------------------
Aristo Croisant 500 gr

Bahan Oles :

Telur 50 gr
Air 100 gr
Keju parut 200 gr
Merica 5 gr
Garlic powder 7 gr
MSG 2 gr

Cara Membuat Bahan Oles :Campur semua bahan menjadi satu,siap digunakan sebagai bahan pemoles.

Cara Membuat adonan :

1.Aduk semua bahan kering,masukkan telur dan air aduk dengan kecepatan rendah selama
2 menit
2.Masukkan butter dan garam,aduk dengan kecepatan sedang sampai 75 % kalis.
3.Bungkus adonan dengan plastik,masukkan ke dalam freezer selama 45 menit
4.keluarkan adonan dari freezer,tipiskan adonan lalu bungkus Aristo Croisant (yang
telah ditipiskan)dengan adonan
5.Tipiskan adonan,melebar persegi panjang, hingga ketebalan 10 mm,lalu lakukan
lipatan single,msukkan ke dalam freezer selama 20 menit.
6,Lakukan proses pelipatan hingga 4 kali,masukkan ke dalam freezer tiap kali setelah
adonan dilakukan pelipatan
7.Setelah 4 kali pelipatan,tipiskan adonan hingga ketebalan 3 mm,lalu oles dengan
bahan oles yang telah disiapkan,lalu taburi dengan parutan keju permesan
8.Lalu potong persegi panjang ukuran 1 x 15 cm,kemudian plinitr adonan,letakkan di
atas loyang,
9.Bakar dengan oven selama 18-20 menit,pada suhu oven 190 C,hingga berwarna
kuning.(hasil akan lebih baik jika di awal pembakaran diberikan steam)

Sabtu, 13 Desember 2008

MEMBUAT ROTI TANPA MENGGUNAKAN YEAST

BAKE A REAL SOUR DOUGH BREAD
(without yeast)


REFERENSI :chefsimon.com









"Poolish" method

1.Mix flour with water and let the mixture undergo a pre-fermentation.
2.Add some more flour in order to obtain a dough of similar texture to the
one obtained in the direct sour dough starter method.
3.The dough of a sour dough bread is made by firstly growing a natural microflore
made up of yeasts and lactic bacteria on it: We uses the starter to sow the dough.
Once growing is done, we should save a lump off it for the next bread. Keep it
wrapped and chilled.

The daily progress of sour dough bread...
Enjoy my first experiment diary !



Wednesday April 10 - 14:00

day 1 (H 0)


1 sour dough starter preparation

Today, weighed 250 grams of flour and 10 grams of sugar






Moisturised with water ( half of the flour weight )






A fluid wet mix is obtained







Store in open air, in a non-closed jar.
Average room temperature : 20°C


Let's take an opportunity to revise!
We have two or three days ahead for this experiment...


Gluten

The gluten is the only ingredient responsible for bread-making ( "panification" ) : when the yeast produce carbon dioxide bubbles, the dough's volume increases. The gluten protein network keeps the round shape of the dough ball

Fermenting gluten








In the case of sour dough bread using "Poolish", the gluten ferments and becomes the yeast-less starter. Later, it is observed in its elastic form when kneading the water and flour mix.









Let's use what we saw in this experiment while segregating starch and gluten.
We observe that gluten placed in a closed container with water, ferments and releases typical fermentation aromas.
We now have a better understanding of the fermentation process.
We therefore understand it is possible to add gluten to a non bread-making flour - for example sweet chestnut or buckwheat - in order to enable bread-making process. This preserves any flour specificity because we don't add wheat flour.

Thursday April 11 - 14:00

day 2 (H 24)

Gluten keeps fermenting.
Very strong odor. Looks very sticky.
Falls apart when shaking jar but groups back after a rest.
Astonishing!






2 Look and smell report.


Mix apperance became very sticky.







Water surges on surface







It is now necessary to stir again,
No specific odour.







Average room temperature is 20°C
Sour dough starter temperature is 25°C

YEAST DAN PROSES PRODUKSI

BAKER'S YEAST PRODUCTION

REFERENSI :
www.dakotayeast.com






Yeasts can grow in the presence or absence of air. Anaerobic growth, growth in the absence of oxygen, is quite slow and inefficient. For instance, in bread dough, yeast grow very little. Instead, the sugar that can sustain either fermentation or growth is used mainly to produce alcohol and carbon dioxide. Only a small portion of the sugar is used for cell maintenance and growth. In contrast, under aerobic conditions, in the presence of a sufficient quantity of dissolved oxygen, yeast grow by using most of the available sugar for growth and producing only negligible quantities of alcohol.

This means that the baker who is interested in the leavening action of carbon dioxide works under conditions that minimize the presence of dissolved oxygen. On the other hand, a yeast manufacturer that wants to produce more yeast cell mass, works under aerobic conditions by bubbling air through the solution in which the yeast is grown.

The problem posed to the yeast manufacturer, however, is not as simple as just adding air during the fermentation process. If the concentration of sugar in the fermentation growth media is greater than a very small amount, the yeast will produce some alcohol even if the supply of oxygen is adequate or even in abundance. This problem can be solved by adding the sugar solution slowly to the yeast throughout the fermentation process. The rate of addition of the sugar solution must be such that the yeast uses the sugar fast enough so that the sugar concentration at any one time is practically zero. This type of fermentation is referred to as a fed-batch fermentation.























The baker’s yeast production process flow chart attached below can be divided into four basic steps. In order these steps are, molasses and other raw material preparation, culture or seed yeast preparation, fermentation and harvesting and filtration and packaging. The process outlined in the flow chart takes approximately five days from start to finish.

The basic carbon and energy source for yeast growth are sugars. Starch can not be used because yeast does not contain the appropriate enzymes to hydrolyze this substrate to fermentable sugars. Beet and cane molasses are commonly used as raw material because the sugars present in molasses, a mixture of sucrose, fructose and glucose, are readily fermentable. In addition to sugar, yeast also require certain minerals, vitamins and salts for growth. Some of these can be added to the blend of beet and cane molasses prior to flash sterilization while others are fed separately to the fermentation. Alternatively, a separate nutrient feed tank can be used to mix and deliver some of the necessary vitamins and minerals. Required nitrogen is supplied in the form of ammonia and phosphate is supplied in the form of phosphoric acid. Each of these nutrients is fed separately to the fermentation to permit better pH control of the process. The sterilized molasses, commonly referred to as mash or wort, is stored in a separate stainless steel tank. The mash stored in this tank is then used to feed sugar and other nutrients to the appropriate fermentation vessels.

Baker’s yeast production starts with a pure culture tube or frozen vial of the appropriate yeast strain. This yeast serves as the inoculum for the pre-pure culture tank, a small pressure vessel where seed is grown in medium under strict sterile conditions. Following growth, the contents of this vessel are transferred to a larger pure culture fermentor where propagation is carried out with some aeration, again under sterile conditions. These early stages are conducted as set-batch fermentations. In a set-batch fermentation all the growth media and nutrients are introduced to the tank prior to inoculation.

From the pure culture vessel, the grown cells are transferred to a series of progressively larger seed and semi-seed fermentors. These later stages are conducted as fed-batch fermentations. During a fed-batch fermentation, molasses, phosphoric acid, ammonia and minerals are fed to the yeast at a controlled rate. This rate is designed to feed just enough sugar and nutrients to the yeast to maximize multiplication and prevent the production of alcohol. In addition, these fed-batch fermentations are not completely sterile. It is not economical to use pressurized tanks to guarantee sterility of the large volumes of air required in these fermentors or to achieve sterile conditions during all the transfers through the many pipes, pumps and centrifuges. Extensive cleaning of the equipment, steaming of pipes and tanks and filtering of the air is practiced to insure as aseptic conditions as possible.

At the end of the semi-seed fermentation, the contents of the vessel are pumped to a series of separators that separate the yeast from the spent molasses. The yeast is then washed with cold water and pumped to a semi-seed yeast storage tank where the yeast cream is held at 34 degrees Fahrenheit until it is used to inoculate the commercial fermentation tanks. These commercial fermentors are the final step in the fermentation process and are often referred to as the final or trade fermentation.

Commercial fermentations are carried out in large fermentors with working volumes up to 50,000 gallons. To start the commercial fermentation, a volume of water, referred to as set water, is pumped into the fermentor. Next, in a process referred to as pitching, semi-seed yeast from the storage tank is transferred into the fermentor. Following addition of the seed yeast, aeration, cooling and nutrient additions are started to begin the 15-20 hour fermentation. At the start of the fermentation, the liquid seed yeast and additional water may occupy only about one-third to one-half of the fermentor volume. Constant additions of nutrients during the course of fermentation bring the fermentor to its final volume. The rate of nutrient addition increases throughout the fermentation because more nutrients have to be supplied to support growth of the increasing cell population. The number of yeast cells increase about five- to eight-fold during this fermentation.

Air is provided to the fermentor through a series of perforated tubes located at the bottom of the vessel. The rate of airflow is about one volume of air per fermentor volume per minute. A large amount of heat is generated during yeast growth and cooling is accomplished by internal cooling coils or by pumping the fermentation liquid, also known as broth, through an external heat exchanger. The addition of nutrients and regulation of pH, temperature and airflow are carefully monitored and controlled by computer systems during the entire production process. Throughout the fermentation, the temperature is kept at approximately 86 degrees Fahrenheit and the pH in the range of 4.5-5.5.

At the end of fermentation, the fermentor broth is separated by nozzle-type centrifuges, washed with water and re-centrifuged to yield a yeast cream with a solids concentration of approximately 18%. The yeast cream is cooled to about 45 degrees Fahrenheit and stored in a separate, refrigerated stainless steel cream tank. Cream yeast can be loaded directly into tanker trucks and delivered to customers equipped with an appropriate cream yeast handling system. Alternatively, the yeast cream can be pumped to a plate and frame filter press and dewatered to a cake-like consistency with a 30-32% yeast solids content. This press cake yeast is crumbled into pieces and packed into 50-pound bags that are stacked on a pallet. The yeast heats up during the pressing and packaging operations and the bags of crumbled yeast must be cooled in a refrigerator for a period of time with adequate ventilation and placement of pallets to permit free access to the cooling air. Palletized bags of crumbled yeast are then distributed to customers in refrigerated trucks.

EMULSIFIER POWDER DAN TEST APLIKASI

REFERENSI :








IMPROVED HYDRATED EMULSIFIER COMPOSITIONS AND
THEIR METHOD OF PREPARATION

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Field of the Invention

The present invention relates to improved hydrated emulsifier compositions and their method of preparation. In addition to the powdered hydrated -emulsifiers dis- closed and claimed in my prior application referred to above, this application describes and claims new methods for preparing the powdered hydrated emulsifiers, hy¬ drated emulsifier compositions including shortenings and/or flavoring agents, and methods for preparing the hydrated emulsifier compositions.

Description of the Prior Art

As set forth in my prior application, surface active agents (emulsifier) are commonly utilized in the food, cosmetic and industrial chemical industries for stabilizing and thereby enhancing the physical character¬ istics of various bakery products, cake icings, shorten¬ ings, whipped toppings, cosmetics, paints, and the like. While my prior invention was directed to minimal hydrates of emulsifiers and their method of preparation so as to yield powdered products exhibiting characteristics of functionality approaching those of the fully hydrated emulsifiers which were then commercially available, cer¬ tain unsolved problems in the emulsifier arts remain. It is with specific regard to a more complete solution of these problems that the present application is directed. For example, while my prior invention discloses and claims an economical and usable method for preparing powdered hydrated emulsifiers, I have now discovered new, alternative methods for their preparation. In addition, prior art literature as well as actual commercial usage of emulsifiers has recognized the de¬ sirability of providing and using stabilized shortenings containing surface active agents therein to produce what might be termed hydrated shortenings.

In this regard-attention is invited to U. S. Letters Patent No. 3,943,259 to Norris. Therein, a fluid short¬ ening is disclosed including an emulsifier in.-;a-stabilized dispersion. -In similar fashion U. S. Patent Noi,-3 9.93,580 to Galusky discloses a process for the continuous produc¬ tion of hydrated lipids in which the final productc.may .-• have a fat plus emulsifier phase in its most stable.*. crystalline form. Other prior art teachings of. shorten- ing-emulsifier compositions which are considered- o;be of interest include the following U. S. Letters Pat-ξϊnt: 3,671,459; 3,782,970; 3,785,993; 3,889,004; 3,.$58,03.3; 3,966,632 and 3,995,069. However, none of these pripr art teachings disclose or suggest either the.. reparation or use of powdered shortening-hydrated emulsifier ;.-_.- compositions.

Relatively modern developments in the food and .cos¬ metic industries have dealt with addition of flavoring agents to their products. For example, it is now quite common to add a butter flavoring to bread and cake ;pro- ducts and to add, for example, fruit flavors to cosmetics such as lipsticks. Such flavoring agents are normally added as a discrete ingredient during the commercial manufacture of the end use product. Particularly with regard to bakery mixes intended for private, in-the~ home, use, the addition of flavoring agents has proved to be. extremely difficult if not virtually impossible. The difficulties are primarily associated with the normal valatility of the flavoring agents and the fact that they must be packaged separately from the dry mix. In fact, I am not aware of any prior.art teaching where¬ by flavoring agents can be added in a dry> powdered or flaked, form to bakery mixes.

Accordingly, it is clear that there is a great need in the art not only for additional methods for preparing powdered hydrated emulsifiers, but also for improved hydrated emulsifier compositions containing shortenings and/or flavoring agents.

OMP

?- •' " SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

' ■_.- _ιl I I £The present invention relates to improved hydrated Z.. "-emulsifier compositions of the type suitable for use in **-:_•_ϊ"'-the food, cosmetic and industrial chemical industries 5 i-≤as well as their methods of preparation. Accordingly, the present invention comprises a method for the forma- - :-'a~t-i'6-_ of what may be termed "minimal hydrates" of emulsi- --ϊf&erέ or surfactant compositions as well as such co p- "-©gd€ions also including shortenings and/or flavoring 10 '-agent's. Insofar as the hydrated emulsifiers and their

--_ήethόd--**-bf preparation, per se, are involved, my presently - co-pending application referred to above is referred to and its disclosure is incorporated herein by reference. Further laboratory testing and experimentation has 15 revealed additional methods for preparing the hydrated emulsifiers in addition to the spray chilling method previously disclosed and claimed. More specifically, i-± has been determined that flaked and powdered hydrated emulsifiers can be prepared using a roller chiller or 20 a belt chiller process. The procedure is first to melt the chosen emulsifier or mixture of emulsifiers and then to add water to the heated emulsifier. This mixture is then blended until a substantially uniform, gel—like- mixture is obtained. This mixture is then applied, as ■ 25 by pouring, to either a roller chiller or a belt "chiller. A flaked hydrated emulsifier may then be removed from the chiller.

In order to obtain a powdered final product, the flaked emulsifier is next placed iή a freezer for about 30 one hour and then ground in a blender to obtain the powdered product. The free flowing powder resulting from this process comprises the powdered hydrated emul¬ sifier, the composition of which was described and claimed in my prior application. Specific examples relating to 35 this new method of preparation are presented hereinafter. At this point it should be noted that the application

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of the water-emulsifier mixture to the chiller by pour¬ ing is but a preferred method for practicing the inven¬ tion. Other methods of application to the chiller, such as, for .example, spraying may also be utilized. In fact, it is believed that if the water-emulsifier is sprayed onto the chiller a powdered final product may be obtained without the necessity of grinding. Further¬ more, it is to be understood that the flaked hydrated emulsifier may be ground into a powder without the necessity of first freezing the flakes.

Yet another aspect of the improved hydrated emul¬ sifier compositions of this invention comprises powdered or flaked water dispersible shortening-hydrated emulsifier blends, and their method of preparation. As previously stated there is a great need for water dis¬ persible shortening blends, and I have now been success¬ ful in applying minimal hydrate techniques to prepare shortening blends comprising shortening, emulsifier and water of hydration. The shortening used can be any of a number of the commonly available products such as, for example, soybean oil, corn oil, peanut oil, cotton¬ seed oil, palm oil, coconut oil, lard, tallow or marine oils. Since the final shortening-hydrated emulsifier blend is to be presented in a flaked or powdered form, the shortening should be at least partially hydrogenated so as to provide a sufficiently hard blend. While as little as about 0.1% shortening may be present in the final shortening-hydrated emulsifier blend, a preferred blend would contain a shortening to hydrated emulsifier ratio of about 7:3. It is, of course, to be understood that the ratio of shortening to hydrated emulsifier will vary dependent upon the lipophilic,hydrophilic charac¬ teristics of the chosen emulsifier. Accordingly, analy¬ sis of the shortening-hydrated emulsifier blends will reflect about 2-15% by weight water of hydration, at least about 0.1% by weight shortening, and emulsifier. These shortening-hydrated emulsifier blends may be

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prepared substantially in accord with the method des¬ cribed and claimed in my prior application and the new chiller method described herein. More specific examples concerning the composition of these blends, their method of preparation and their use are presented hereinafter. Yet another improved hydrated emulsifier composi¬ tion of these blends, their method of preparation and their use are presented hereinafter.

Yet another improved hydrated emulsifier composition of this invention comprises a flavored, hydrated emulsi¬ fier and its method of preparation. Briefly stated, these flavored, hydrated emulsifiers comprise flaked or powdered hydrated emulsifiers containing about 2-15% by weight water of hydration and about 0.1-30% by weight flavoring agent. Flavoring agents may be selected from any of the commercially available materials consisting of both natural and artificial flavors such as, for example, butter, butterscotch, chocolate, peppermint, orange, lemon, and others. While a specific example disclosing a preferred method for preparing the flavored, hydrated emulsifier is presented below, they may be prepared by spray chilling, roller chilling or belt chilling.

Finally, the improved hydrated emulsifier composi- tions of the present invention further comprise flavored, water dispersible, shortening-hydrated emulsifier blends and their method of preparation. These blends comprise a flaked or powdered hydrated emulsifier composition comprising about 2-15% by weight water of hydration, about 0.1-30% by weight flavoring agent, at least about 0.1% by weight shortening, and emulsifier. Specific examples of these flavored, water dispersible, shorten¬ ing-hydrated emulsifier blends as well as their method of preparation are presented hereinafter, and they, too, may be prepared by spray chilling, roller chilling or belt chilling.

The invention accordingly comprises several steps

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and the relation of one or more of such steps with respect to each of the others, and the compositions possessing the features, properties and the relation of constituents which are exemplified in the following detailed disclosure, and the scope of the invention will be indicated in the claims.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

The present invention relates to improved hydrated emulsifier compositions and their method of preparation. Such compositions are commonly used in the food, cosme¬ tic and industrial chemical industries. The following examples, then, are set forth in order to fully describe the compositions of the present invention and their methods of preparation.

EXAMPLE I

One mole of distilled monoglyceride, made from fully hydrogenated fatty acid glycerol esters, containing 90% alpha monoglyceride, was reacted with 1/2 mold of succinic anhydride. The mixture was heated with stirring until maximum formation of the succinic half ester had occurred. TWO moles of water were added. The blend became quite viscous and gel-like. When the mixture was uniformly blended, it was applied to a roller chiller. This pro¬ duced an off-white flaked material which was then placed in a freezer for one hour. The frozen, flaked material was then ground in a Waring blender.

The hydrated emulsifier product obtained was a free- flowing white powder that passed through a standard twenty mesh screen. This product contained about 7% by weight water. The hydrated emulsifier prepared in accord with this Example I dispersed readily in cold water.

Further examples of the hydrated emulsifier compo-

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sitions were prepared in accord with the roller chilling method of Example I. The resulting powdered hydrated emulsifier compositions thus prepared are presented be¬ low. All composition constituents are listed in weight percents.

EXAMPLE II

Distilled Monoglyceride s 85% Ethoxylated Mono-diglycerides 3% Water 12%

EXAMPLE III

Sodium Stearoyl 2 Lactylate 19% Polyoxyethylene Sorbitan Ester 19% Mono-diglycerides 57% Water 5%

Powdered hydrated emulsifier compositions were also produced by flaking the material onto a belt chiller and subsequently grinding the flakes into a powder. The following Examples IV and V depict powdered hydrated emulsifier compositions prepared as generally set forth in Example I but utilizing a belt chiller.

EXAMPLE IV

Distilled Monoglyceride 88% Ethoxylated Mono-diglycerides 3% Water 9%

EXAMPLE V

Succinic half ester of glycerol monoesters 62.5% Monoglyceride 31.5%

Water 6.0%

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In each of the above examples, the blended material was applied to the chiller by pouring, but the method of this invention is not limited thereby. The material could be sprayed onto the chiller, and this could result in obtaining a powdered product without the necessity of grinding in a blender. It should also be noted that the flaked material may be ground to a powder without first having frozen them.

The following examples are set forth in order to fully describe the method and the composition of improved hydrated emulsifier compositions of this invention com¬ prising powdered, water dispersible shortening-hydrated emulsifier blends.

EXAMPLE VI

A blend of twenty parts succinylated monoglyceride, ten parts distilled monoglyceride, forty-six and one half parts cottonseed flakes (Iodine value less than four) , and twenty-three and one half parts soybean oil (Iodine value 135) was heated to about 80°C and mixed. Water was added to this blend, and the mixture was sprayed into a cooling chamber where the material went from a temperature of about 80°C to about 20°C. The pro¬ duct obtained was free-flowing light yellow powder con- taining about 7% by weight water.

The emulsification properties of the shortening- hydrated emulsifier blend was tested by placing forty grams of the product into 120 grams of 22°C. The mini¬ mum amount of mixing needed to wet the powder was used. The mixture was then observed with no further mixing.

After approximately thirty minutes a noticeable swelling of the particles had occurred. After approximately one hour and thirty minutes the mixture was an emulsified paste. Yet another example of the powdered, water dispersible shortening-hydrated emulsifier blend of the present inven-

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tion was prepared in accord with the spray chilling method of Example VI. The resulting shortening-hydrated emulsifier blend composition is presented below. All composition constituents are listed in weight percents.

EXAMPLE VII

Cottonseed Flakes 46.5%

Soybean Oil 23.5%

Mono-diglycerides 15.0%

Propylene glycol monostearate 15.-0% These materials were heated to about 80°C and mixed. Water was added and the mixture was spray chilled, re¬ sulting in a final product containing about 6% water. The product obtained was a light yellow powder.

EXAMPLE VIII

Palm Oil 49.2%

Cottonseed Flakes 36.3%

Polyoxye hylene sorbitan monostearate 9.5%

Water 5.0%

EXAMPLE IX

Hydrogenated Soybean Oil 86.5%

Ethoxylated Mono-diglycerides 7.5%

Water 6.0%

EXAMPLE X

Hydrogenated Cottonseed Oil 79% Sodium Stearoyl 2 Lactylate 14%

Water 7%

The following example is given in order to illus¬ trate a method of utilizing the powdered, water disper-

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sible shortening-hydrated emulsifier blend of this invention.

EXAMPLE XI

Commercial yellow layer cake was prepared using the shortening-hydrated emulsifier blend of Example VII. The cake mix was of the following composition:

Shortening-hydrated emulsifier blend 25 parts

Granulated sugar 602 parts

Cake flour 550 parts Milk powder 50 parts

Whole egg solids 21 parts

Egg white solids 9 parts

Sale 9 parts

Baking powder 35 parts Water 546 parts

The test cake was of very good overall quality.

The following example is set forth in order to fully describe a preferred composition for a flavored, hydrated emulsifier of this invention and its method of preparation.

EXAMPLE XII

Eighty-five parts monoglyceride was heated to about 75°C, and to this melt were added five parts butter flavor, four parts polyglycerate 60 and six parts water. when the resulting mixture was uniform it was applied by pouring onto a belt chiller. This produced white flaked material. The flaked material was placed in a freezer for about one hour and was then ground. The final pro¬ duct obtained was a free-flowing white powder that passed through a standard thirty mesh screen.

The flavored, hydrated emulsifier composition wetted

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readily in cold water.

The following examples are set forth in order to fully describe improved hydrated emulsifier compositions of the presen/t invention comprising flavored, water dis- persible, shortening-hydrated emulsifier blends and their methods of preparation.

EXAMPLE XIII

A flavored, water dispersible shortening-hydrated emulsifier blend was prepared from the following consti- tuents:

Butterscotch flavor 5 parts

Polyoxyethylene Sorbitan Monostearate 5 parts

Cottonseed Oil (Hydrogenated) 85 parts

Water 5 parts

The butterscotch flavor, emulsifier and water were blended together at ambient temperature. The shortening was melted to about 80°C in a separate vessel. The two liquids were pumped to a single spray nozzle that sprayed into a cooling chamber. The atomized product rapidly decreased in temperature from about 80°C to about 20°C. The product obtained was a free-flowing light yellow powder including about 5% water.

The emulsification properties of this flavored, water dispersible, shortening-hydrated emulsifier blend was tested in accord with the procedures of Example VI. The powder particles swelled after about forty-five minutes and emulsified in two hours.

EXAMPLE XIV

Yet another flavored, water dispersible, shortening- hydrated emulsifier blend was prepared utilizing the following constituents:

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Butter flavor 5 parts

Polyoxyethylene Sorbitan Monostearate 5 parts

Cottonseed Oil (Hydrogenated) 85 parts

Water . 5 parts

All four constituents were blended together at about 70°C and then applied to a belt chiller. This produced a light yellow flaked material. The flaked material was placed in a freezer for one hour and then ground to a powder. The powdered product obtained was a free-flowing off-white powder that passed through a standard thirty mesh screen. The product contained about 5% water and wetted readily in cold water.

Additional examples of flavored, water dispersible, shortening-hydrated emulsifier blends are presented below.

EXAMPLE XV

Garlic Oil .1 parts

Polyglycerate 60 14.9 parts

Cottonseed Oil (hydrogenated) 80 parts Water 5 parts

EXAMPLE XVI

Butter flavor 30 parts

Polyglycerate 60 5 parts

Cottonseed Oil (hydrogenated) 58 parts Water 7 parts

While the above examples have been presented with specific relation to products in the food industry, it is to be understood that the method and composition of the invention is not to be limited thereby. Both the improved hydrated emulsifier compositions and their methods of preparation may be utilized in the production

of yeast raised baked goods, non-yeast raised baked goods, dairy products, creamers, cake icings, pudding, mayonnaise, cosmetics, paints and the like.

It will thus be seen that the object set forth above, among those made apparent from the preceding description are efficiently attained and since certain changes may be made in carrying out the above method and in the compo¬ sitions set forth without departing from the scope of the invention, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description shall be interpreted as illus¬ trative and not in a limiting sense.

It is also to be understood that the following claims are intended to cover all of the generic and specific features of the invention herein described, and all state- ments of the scope of the invention which, as a matter of language might be said to fall therebetween. Now that the invention has been described,

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EMULSIFIER PASTA DAN TEST APLIKASI

REFERENSI :






AN EMULSIFIER AND A METHOD FOR ITS PREPARATION

The present invention relates to a polyglycerol partial fatty acid ester emulsifier, a method for the preparation thereof and a product con¬ taining such an emulsifier applied on a particulate carrier.

I n the present context, the term "polyglycerol" designates condensed glycerol molecules, such as dimeric glycerol (diglycerol) , trimeric glycerol (triglycerol) , etc. Commercial glycerol condensate products or polyglycerol products useful for preparing the emulsifiers of the invention , such as products in which the major proportion is con- stituted by dimeric glycerol (diglycerol) are normally mixtures con- - taining glycerol in varying amounts of polymerization, from monomeric glycerol up to tetrameric or higher glycerol condensates . Important examples of such polyglycerol products are products which contain, e. g . , at the most 30% of monomeric glycerol, and very interesting products are products which contain at the most 25%, such as at the most 20%, of monomeric glycerol and about 60% of dimeric glycerol (diglycerol) , the remainder being higher condensates of glycerol , but the composition of polyglycerol products may vary over a wide range.

Polyglycerol partial fatty acid emulsifiers comprising polyglycerol which is predominantly mono- and/or diesterified with saturated fatty acid moieties and optionally monomeric glycerol which is predominantly mono- and/or diesterified with satu rated fatty acid moieties are nor¬ mally used, e. g . , as emulsifiers or "aerating agents" (aerating agent is a designation used in the food industry for an emulsifier which is used for whipping purposes, in other words for preparing emulsions where air constitutes the disperse phase) in food products, e. g . for preparing cake mixes, or as emulsifiers in ice cream or fine food products .

Such polyglycerol partial fatty acid emulsifiers are normally prepared by reacting a polyglycerol product with a fatty acid or a mixture of fatty acids or with a fatty acid glyceride or a mixture of fatty acid glycerides . The fatty acids or the fatty acid moieties in the fatty acid glycerides are saturated acids or moieties with an average number of carbon atoms in the range of 17-18, such as stearic acid or tallow fatty acids .

It has now surprisingly been found that the emulsifier or aerating properties of polyglycerol partial fatty acid ester emulsifiers, in particular emulsifiers in which the major proportion of the polygly¬ cerol is diglycerol, are improved considerably when the fatty acid moieties with which the polyglycerol and, if present, monomeric glyce¬ rol, is esterified, are selected so that the average number of carbon atoms in the acid moieties is in the range between 13.0 and 16.5.

I n the present context, the term "the average number of carbon atoms in the acid moieties" is intended to designate the average re- suiting from dividing the total number of carbon atoms in the acid moieties present as esterifying moieties on the polyglycerol and mono¬ meric glycerol molecules with the total number of these esterifying moieties . As mentioned above, e. g . , products which contain a pre¬ dominant amount of diglycerol may typically contain an amount of monomeric glycerol and an amount of higher glycerol condensates (or higher glycerol condensates may be formed by condensation during the esterification process) . In the normal preparation of the emulsifier product, both the monomeric glycerol and the glycerol condensates will become esterified, normally mono- and/or diesterified at terminal hydroxy groups .

I n practice, there will substantially be concordance between the average carbon number of the acid moieties with which the diglycerol is esterified and the average carbon number of the acids or acid moieties of the acid or glyceride starting material used in the esteri- fication in which the diglycerol partial fatty acid ester emulsifiers are made. Therefore, the average carbon number of the acid moieties of the esterified diglycerol molecujes will , in practice, be substantially identical with the average carbon atom number of the acid moieties of the starting material used .

Preferred polyglycerol partial fatty acid ester emulsifiers of the in¬ vention are emulsifiers in which at the most 30% of the emulsifier consists of partial fatty acid esters of monomeric glycerol . Especially preferred emulsifiers of the invention are emulsifiers in which at least 50%, preferably at least 60%, of the emulsifier consists of diglycerol

partial fatty acid esters, and at the most 25%, such as at the most 20%, consists of partial fatty acid esters of monomeric glycerol . These products are very interesting products as aerating agents for cake mixes .

It is preferred that at least 60%, in particular at least 80%, more pre¬ ferably at least 90%, of the fatty acid moieties in the emulsifier con¬ tain at least 12 carbon atoms . The fatty acid moieties are saturated . A small percentage of unsaturated acid moieties may be present, but should preferably be less than 3%, more preferably less than 2%, and most preferably less than 1% by weight.

Very interesting products according to the invention are polyglycerol partial fatty acid ester emulsifiers, such as predominantly diglycerol partial fatty acid ester emulsifiers, in which the average number of carbon atoms of the acid moieties is in the range between 14.0 and 16.0, in particular in the range between 14.0 and 15.8, such as, e. g . , in the range between 14.0 and 15.5.

Acids which , either per se or combined with each other, will be use¬ ful for obtaining the average number of carbon atoms according to the invention are, e. g . , lau ric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid . I n practice, it has been found that a very useful emulsi¬ fier or aerating agent is one in which 40-60%, preferably about 50%, of the fatty acid moieties are lauric acid moieties, and 25-50% are stearic acid moieties, 10-20% are palmitic acid moieties, and 0-3% are myristic acid moieties . Such a combination is obtained by esterifying with an about equal mixture of lauric acid and tallow fatty acids . A particular acid composition which is obtainable in this manner is one in which 40-60%, preferably about 50%, of the fatty acid moieties are lauric acid moieties, and 25-35% are stearic acid moieties, 10-20% are palmitic acid moieties and 0-3% are myristic acid moieties .

While the desired average carbon atom number of the acid moieties may result (when more than one type of acid moiety is involved) as well from mixing polyglyceride partial fatty acid esters containing a low average carbon atom number in their acid moieties with poly-

glyceride partial fatty acid esters containing a high average carbon atom number in their acid moieties as from preparing the polyglycer- ide partial fatty acid esters directly by esterifying a polyglycerol product with the appropriate acid mixture or triglyceride mixture to result in the desired average carbon atom number, the latter is preferred, as such co- reaction has been found to result in much better emulsifier-aerating agent properties . Thus, a preferred method of preparing the emulsifiers of the invention is to react a polyglycer¬ ol, optionally containing monomeric glycerol , with a fatty acid or a mixture of fatty acids or with a fatty acid glyceride or a mixture of fatty acid glycerides, the number of carbon atoms of the fatty acid or of the fatty acid moieties of the glyceride or the average number of carbon atoms of the fatty acids or the fatty acid moieties of the glycerides being in the range between 13.0 and 16.5.

The reaction may be performed in a manner known per se, normally by heating the polyglycerol product with the fatty acid or mixture of fatty acids or the fatty acid glyceride or mixture of fatty acid glyce¬ rides at a relatively high temperatu re, such as a temperature in the range of 200-270°C in the presence of an amount of a basic catalyst. Another special method for preparing polyglycerol partial fatty acid esters which may also be used for preparing the emulsifiers of the invention is a method wherein the esterification is performed by reacting a polyglycerol product with fatty acid glycerides in tertiary butyl alcohol as the solvent. This method is described in European Patent No. 0 038 347.

The ratio between the starting materials in the process of the inven¬ tion is suitably so selected that the resulting emulsifier product will be one in which the glycerol or polyglycerol moieties are predominant¬ ly mono- or diesterified and little or no higher esterified glycerol or polyglycerol molecules are formed. I n practice, a suitable weight ratio between the fatty acid component and the polyglycerol product com¬ ponent may be precalculated on the basis of the composition of the fatty acid component and the polyglycerol product component, based on the presumption that the degree of esterification will substantially correspond to the stoichiometric ratios in the starting reaction mix-

ture. For most combinations of polyglycerol product and fatty acids, for example, the weight ratio between fatty acids and polyglycerol product will be of the order of less than 7:3, preferably less than 6:4, a preferred ratio often being of the order of 5.5:4.5. After the reaction , an excess of unreacted diglycerol may, if desired, be re¬ moved in a manner known per se. It is also possible to add monomeric glycerol to the product, if desired, in order to adjust the viscosity of the product.

The emulsifier of the invention is used in the same manner as known emulsifiers for the same purposes . Thus, for example, it may be added to the products or mixes to be emulsified or aerated in an amount of about 1 -4% by weight, such as 1 .5-3% by weight, such as about 2% by weight, calculated on the weight of the emulsifier relative to the weight of dry constituents of the products or mixes (i . e. , e. g . , for cake mixes, without the eggs and water added immediately before mixing) . The emulsifier may be added to such cake mixes and similar mixes at the time when the mixes are mixed with eggs and water, or it may be added to the dry mix .

The invention also relates to a food product, in particular a cake mix or a cake product made therefrom, containing an emulsifier as defined above in particular in an amount of 1 -4% by weight, calculated as stated above.

A preferred administration form of the emulsifier is as a free-flowing powder product.

It is known to prepare such free-flowing powder products by spray- drying or by application of the emulsifier on sucrose particles as a carrier. Thus, one known method for preparing such powders is to spray-dry an emulsion made from skim milk or whey and the emulsi¬ fier. However, a preferred administration form of the emulsifier is a substantially free-flowing emulsifier product in which the emulsifier is applied on a particulate carrier, preferably in an amount of at least 10% by weight, calculated on the weight of the product. The carrier is preferably of vegetable origin, and interesting carriers are carriers

selected from flours, starches, mono- and disaccharides and pentosans and mixtures thereof, optionally with an admixture of material of vegetable fibre origin .

Such a type of product, and a method for its preparation, is described in Applicants's prior pending Danish patent application No. 1487/84 (International application No. PCT/DK85/00018, publication No. WO85/03846, European application publication No. 0153870) .

It is generally preferred that the carrier is one which contains or consists of starch .

As examples of such carriers which are of great interest in connection with surface-active substances for use in the food industry may be mentioned tuber starches or flours such as potato starch , batat starch and yam starch , sago starch, bean flour and pea flour, cereal starches or flours such as rice starch, wheat starch, rye starch, barley starch, oat starch , rice flour, wheat flour, rye flour, barley flour, oat flour, and maize starch, maltodextrins, dextrose, fructose, and mixtures thereof .

The particulate carriers are normally carriers, the particles of which have a particle size distribution with a major fraction having a size in the range of about 1 -20 μm, in particular 1 -10 ym. It is often pre¬ ferred that the carriers have very small particle sizes, for examples with major particle size fractions in the range of 1 -5 ym or less .

In the emulsifier products of the invention, the percentage of the emulsifier is normally in the range of 10-60%, such as 10-50%, and often preferably 15-50%, in particular 15-40%, calculated on the total weight of the emulsifier and the carrier.

The substantially free-flowing powder product having the above- described characteristics may be prepared by mixing the emulsifier with one or several particulate carriers and subjecting the resulting mixture to extrusion or an equivalent treatment to form a substantially free-flowing powder.

When the emulsifier and a suitable particulate carrier, in particular a carrier which is able to become "wetted with" or to "sorb" (adsorb and/or absorb) the emulsifier under the conditions prevailing, is sub¬ jected to extrusion, it is possible to obtain an extrudate which, in- stead of having the form of an extruded string of the mixture, imme¬ diately disintegrates into a powder product with highly desirable pro¬ perties .

Suitable carriers are the ones mentioned above, in particular particu¬ late carriers which are starches or flours . While these preferred car¬ riers may be used as they are (with particle size distributions which often have a major fraction having a size in the range of about 1 -20 ym and preferably 1 -10 ym, but may also be somewhat larger, e. g . with major fractions of up to 20-50 ym or even 50-100 ym) , it is contemplated that it may be advantageous to secu re a very fine part- icle size of the carriers, such as 1 -5 ym or finer, by subjecting the carriers to additional comminution beyond the comminution which such products (for example flours or starches) have normally been sub¬ jected to. Such additional comminution may, e. g . , be performed in a circular-chamber jet mill or a blender type mill . A typical example of Blaine value for wheat starch useful as a carrier is about 2500 cm2/ g, and for rice starch about 6000 cmVg . When emulsifier has been ap¬ plied to such carriers , the Blaine values decrease somewhat, typically to, e. g . , about 1100 cmVg for a product containing 22.5% by weight of emulsifier and 77.5% by weight of wheat starch , and about 1700 cmVg for a product containing 35% by weight of emulsifier and 65% by weight of rice starch .

The vegetable flour or starch carriers may, if desired, be combined with fibrous materials to obtain a starch or flour/fiber combination carrier, provided that the fibrous materials in the final product have about the same "particle" size (e. g . fiber length) as the flour or starch particles, such as a size in the range of 1 -100 ym, in partic¬ ular 1 -20 ym, or less, such as explained above. The fibrous materials may be comminuted to such small sizes before they are added to the mixture, or they may be fibrous materials of such a brittle or weak character that they are comminuted to the small particle sizes men-

tioned during the mixing process . Examples of suitable fibrous mat¬ erials for this purpose are brans such as wheat bran, rye bran , pea bran or bean bran . When finely divided fibrous materials are included in the carrier, it is preferred that they constitute at the most 50% by weight of the carrier material, preferably at the most 20% by weight of the carrier and most preferably at the most 5% by weight of the carrier.

The mixing of the constituents is suitably performed immediately prior to the extrusion in the mixing/transport means of the extruding equipment. This transport means is typically a screw mixer such as a double screw mixer. The temperature in the last part of the screw mixer (and hence approximately the temperature of the mixture sub¬ jected to extrusion) is normally in the range of 100-180°C, typically 110-150°C and often preferably 120-140°C . The orifice or each orifice through which the mixtu re is extruded will normally have a diameter of from about 1/2 to about 8 mm; often, a diameter of about 1 -4 mm, such as about 2 mm, is very well suited .

The mixture subjected to the extrusion will normally have a free water content (water which is not chemically bound) of 1 -30% by weight, especially 5-25% by weight. I n certain cases it may be found advantageous to add a small percentage of water, such as 0.1 -5% by weight, in particular 0. 1 -3% by weight, to the mixer together with the surface-active substance and the carrier.

EXAMPLE 1

An emulsifier product was prepared by heating 202.5 g of glycerol condensate mixture (comprising 15% of monomeric glycerol, 60% of di¬ glycerol and the remainder being higher glycerol condensates) , 247.5 g of a stearic acid product (containing about 70% by weight of stearic acid, 25% by weight of palmitic acid, and 5% by weight of myristic acid, average carbon atom number of the product: 17.2) and 2 g of sodium hydroxide to 230°C and keeping the mixture at 230°C for 20 minutes, whereafter the mixture was quickly cooled to just below 100°C. The resulting homogeneous, clear product was allowed to cool , whereby a yellow to light brown fat-like emulsifier product (in the following termed stearic acid diglycerol partial ester) was obtained .

Using exactly the same conditions and exactly the same amounts, but using, instead of the stearic acid product, myristic acid (99% by weight of myristic acid, carbon atom number: 14) , another, yellow to light brown fat-like emulsifier product (in the following termed myris¬ tic acid diglycerol partial ester) was obtained . The saponification number of the product was 135-140.

The stearic acid diglycerol partial ester was mixed with the myristic acid diglycerol partial ester in the weight ratios 90: 10 and 80: 20, respectively (by melting and mixing) , and the resulting mixtu res, as well as each of the stearic acid diglycerol partial ester and the myris¬ tic acid diglycerol partial ester per se, were applied on rice starch as follows :

To an extruder of the type BC 45 supplied by Creu sot- Loire, France, and comprising a double screw which rotates at a rotational speed of 200 r. p . m. , and two nozzles of a diameter of 2 mm, part of the double screw length being cooled by means of a water jacket and the part of the double screw being adjacent to the nozzles being heated by means of an induction heating jacket, rice starch was supplied through an inlet funnel comprising two screws conveying the starch , and the diglycerol partial ester or diglycerol partial ester mixture in molten form was supplied to the double screw through a tube. Through another tube to the extruder, 1 .5% of water (calculated on the same

percentage basis as the diglycerol partial ester or mixture and the rice starch) was added . The weight ratio between the supply of di¬ glycerol partial ester or mixture and the supply of rice starch was 35% of diglycerol partial ester or mixture to 65% of rice starch . The total amount supplied per hour was 45 kg.

The temperature of the screw part was thermostated to 130°C.

As a start up phase, a surplus of the diglycerol partial ester or mix¬ ture and the water was added, and the product emerged as a semi- liquid or pasty liquid or paste-like string . When the water and di- glycerol partial ester or mixture supplied had been adjusted to the amounts referred to above, the product changed into a particulate free-flowing powder.

The product resulting from the extrusion was a free-flowing powder comprising the rice starch particles (or small agglomerates of partic- les) carrying the diglycerol partial ester or mixture.

Three further emulsifier products were prepared by esterification of the same glycerol condensate mixture in exactly the same manner as described above, but using, as the acid reactant, mixtu res of the stearic acid product and the myristic acid in the weight ratios 90: 10, 80:20, and 70:30, respectively. The resulting "co-reacted" products were applied on rice starch in exactly the same manner as described above.

57 g of each of the resulting rice starch-supported products was sub¬ jected to a whipping test in a layer cake mix of the following compo- sition :

405 g of granulated sugar 270 g of wheat flour 188 g of wheat starch 30 g of baking powder 50 g of milk powder

350 g of whole egg 350 g of water.

The dry ingredients (i . e. all ingredients with the exception of egg and water) were mixed and sifted . The egg and water were stirred into the dry mixture on a Hobart-type planetary mixer for 1 minute at lowest speed setting, followed by whipping at 264 r. p.m. for 3, 5 or 10 minutes, at which times the bulk weight was determined . The results appear from Table 1 :

Table 1 Cake mix bulk weight, g/litre

Ratio myristic acid : Whipping time Stearic acid product Comment 3 min . 5 min . 10 min .

0:100 1030 1010 755

100:0 335 335 360

90:10 mixture 380 345 350

80:20 mixture 470 400 365

90:10 co-reacted 360 365 345

80:20 co-reacted 320 315 335

70:30 co-reacted 350 335 335

It appears from Table 1 that the emulsifier made with the stearic acid product has poor whipping properties whereas the emulsifier made with myristic acid gives excellent whipping . Also, the mixtu re of 90% of the emulsifier made with myristic acid and 10% of the emulsifier made with the stearic acid product results in good whippling proper- ties, whereas the whipping properties are somewhat inferior when the stearic acid emulsifier proportion of the mixture is increased to 20%. It also appears that the co-reaction tends to result in better whipping properties . Thus, the product co-reacted with 80% of the myristic acid and 20% of the stearic acid product has much better whipping properties that the 80:20 mixture. It will also be noted that while the mixture product starts to result in poor whipping results al ready at the ratio 80: 20, the co-reacted product gives excellent whipping properties at the ratio 70:30.

EXAMPLE 2

In the same manner as described in Example 1 , mixtures of myristic acid and the stearic acid product were reacted with diglycerol to re¬ sult in co-reacted products . After the reaction, unesterified glycerol and glycerol condensate were removed from the reaction mixture. Each of the resulting emulsifiers was applied on icing sugar in an amount of 10% of emulsifier on 90% of the sugar by melting the emulsifier and adding the sugar. Then, each resulting coarse powdery product was passed through a sieve to yield a free-flowing powder. After standing for about 24 hours, each product was again passed through a sieve and was then subjected to the same whipping test in the same layer cake mixture as described in Example 1 . The results appear from Table 2:

Table 2 Cake mix bulk weight, g/litre

Ratio myristic acid : Whipping time stearic acid product, 3 min . 5 min . 10 min . co- reacted

100:0 360 315 355 90: 10 335 305 305 80:20 335 295 300 70:30 320 295 285 60:40 360 315 285 50: 50 350 305 275 40: 60 330 315 285 20:80 565 415 300 10:90 630 440 285

In the same manner, a co-reacted 50:50 myristic acid :fully hardened tallow fatty acids product was prepared and tested . The whipping re¬ sults were: 3 minutes: 350 g/litre, 5 minutes: 305 g/litre, and 10 minutes : 280 g/litre, in other words almost identical to the results

stated above, although the tallow fatty acids product introduces a small extra amount of glycerol .

EXAMPLE 3

I n the same manner as described in Example 2, co-reaction emulsifiers were made with mixtures of the myristic acid and 99% palmitic acid. After the reaction , the unesterified glycerol and glycerol condensate were removed from the reaction mixture. The resulting products were applied on sugar as described in Example 2 and subjected to the whipping test in the same manner as- described in Example 1 . The results appear from Table 3.

Table 3 Cake mix bulk weight, g/litre

Ratio myristic acid : Whipping time palmitic acid, co-reacted 3 min . 5 min . 10 min .

100:0 350 310 355 90: 10 335 305 345 80:20 330 305 330 70:30 340 305 315 60:40 325 320 305 50: 50 335 315 305 40: 60 330 335 305 30: 70 325 320 290 20: 80 330 335 315 10: 90 330 335 305

EXAMPLE 4

An emulsified product was prepared by heating 19.92 kg of the same glycerol condensate mixture as in Example 1 , 0.33 kg of glycerine,

12.38 kg of lauric acid (99%) and 12.38 kg of the same stearic acid product as in Example 1 at 225-230°C for 40 minutes . During the heating, 1 .4 kg of reaction water was removed . (The reaction was obtained without addition of catalyst; the amount of catalyst present in the glycerol condensate mixture) . The mixture was then quickly cooled to just below 100°C. The resulting homogeneous, clear product was allowed to cool, whereby a yellow light brown fat-like emulsified product was obtained . The saponification value of the product was 141 .7, the acid number was 2.7, and the pH was 7.2. A melting point determination in capillary tube gave the following result: Clarification point 38.5°C, rising point 61 °C.

This co-reacted emulsifier product was applied on rice starch in an extruder in the same manner as described in Example 1 . In one experiment, 35% of the emulsifier was applied on 65% of rice starch with addition of 1 .5% of water. I n another experiment, 35% of the emulsifier was applied on 65% of rice starch without addition of water. I n a third experiment, 39.2% of the emulsifier was applied on 60.8% of rice starch without addition of water.

Each of the rice starch-supported products was subjected to the same whipping test in the same layer cake mixture as described in Example 1 . Each product was mixed with the other ingredients, and part of the resulting mixture was immediately whipped. Another part of the emulsifier-containing mix (dry) was stored for three months at room temperature, whereafter it was whipped . The results of the whipping tests appear from Table 4:

Table 4 Cake mix bulk weight, g/litre

Co- reacted 50: 50 Whipping time lauric acid : stearic 3 min . 5 min . 10 min . acid product

35% emulsifier, 65% rice starch , prepared using 1 .5% of water

Mix fresh prepared 335 335 355

After three months 340 355 380

35% emulsifier, 65% rice starch, without water

Mix fresh prepared 325 330 345

After three months 345 350 360

39.2% emulsifier, 60.8% rice starch , without water

Mix fresh prepared 350 330 340

After three months 335 340 365

It appears from the results that the emulsifier has excellent whipping properties , and that these excellent whipping properties are retained even when the emulsifier, mixed with the cake mix , is stored for a long period at room temperature.

EXAMPLE 5

I n the same manner as described in Example 4, a series of emulsifiers were prepared in large scale with four different acid reactants : 99% lauric acid; the stearic acid product described in Example 1 ; 99% my¬ ristic acid; and 99% palmitic acid . The glycerol condensate mixture was the same as in Example 1 . The weight ratio between the acid reactant and the glycerol condensate mixture was 55:45. As catalyst, 0.44% of sodium hydroxide was used, calculated on the reactants.

Each of the resulting emulsifier products was applied in an amount of 35% on 65% of rice starch in the same manner as described in Example 1 , using 1 .5% of water and no water, respectively . The results of the whipping tests appear from Table 5.

Table 5

Emulsifier Whipping time product 3 min . 5 min . 10 min .

lauric acid product applied on rice starch , with water 665 730 710 applied on rice starch , without water 525 630 695 stearic acid product applied on rice starch , with water 900 750 475 applied on rice starch , without water 910 735 490 myristic acid product applied on rice starch , with water fresh mix 335 335 360 after th ree months storage in the cake mix 420 390 365 palmitic acid, applied on rice starch with water fresh mix 395 365 330 after three months 530 430 355

EXAMPLE 6

An emulsifier product was prepared by heating 57.8% of a glycerol condensate mixture having a viscosity of 1000 cps at 60°C and having the following average composition :

Monomeric glycerol 21 .5%

Diglycerol 26.3%

Trimeric condensate 19. 1%

Tetrameric condensate 12.1%

Pentameric condensate 7.4%

Higher condensates 13.6%

The above product was esterified with myristic acid . The weight ratio between the glycerol condensate product and the myristic acid was 57.8:42.2. No catalyst was added (the small amount of catalyst pre- sent in the polyglycerol product was sufficient) . The mixtu re was kept at 265°C for 20 minutes whereafter it was quickly cooled to just below 100°C . The resulting homogeneous, clear product was allowed to cool, whereby a yellow to light brown fat-like emulsifier product was obtained . Unesterified glycerol and glycerol condensate were removed from the product. The data of the product were as follows : Before removal of un reacted glycerol and glycerol condensate: Saponification value 111 .5; acid number 0.9; pH 7.6. After removal of unreacted glycerol and glycerol condensate: Saponification value 150.5, acid number 9.2.

I n the same manner, another product was made using the same glyce¬ rol condensate mixture, but using a 80: 20 mixture of myristic acid (99%) and the stearic acid product described in Example 1 as the acid reactant. The data of the resulting emulsifier product were as follows : Before removal of unesterified glycerol and glycerol condensate: Saponification value 134.8; acid number 2.9; pH 8.5. After removal of unesterified glycerol and glycerol condensate: Saponification value 163.3; acid number 10.9.

Each of these emulsifier products (from which unreacted glycerol and glycerol condensate have been removed) was applied in an amount of 10% on 90% of icing sugar as described in Example 2, and the sugar- supported products were subjected to the same whipping tests in the same layer cake mixture as described in Example 1 . The results ap¬ pear from Table 6:

Table 6 Cake mix bulk weight, g/litre

Whipping time

Product 3 min . 5 min . 10 min .

Prepared with myristic acid 500 465 465

Prepared with 80:20 mixture of myristic acid and stearic acid product 650 560 410

These results are much better than results obtained with the same glycerol condensate reacted in the same manner with the stearic acid product alone.

Senin, 08 Desember 2008

PROSES PEMBUATAN MARGARINE

Margarine adalah salah satu bahan tambahan dalam pembuatan product bakery,cake dll.Dalam keseharian kita margarine adalah teman untuk makan pagi yang anda padukan dengan roti tawar,mugkin juga untuk memasak makanan favorit anda.Berikut akan saya uraikan bagaimana margarine di produksi,dari awal proses hingga siap untu anda sajikan dengan makanan favorit anda.

DIAGRAM PROSES PRODUKSI MARGARINE































PROSES PANEN KELAPA SAWIT






















HEAT AND CRUSH PLANT SEEDS PROCESS


Biji kelapa sawit yang telah dipanen lalu dimasukkan mesin sehingga mengalami proses pemanasan dan penekanan sehingga dihasilkan minyak mentah.