IMPROVED HYDRATED EMULSIFIER COMPOSITIONS AND
THEIR METHOD OF PREPARATION
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to improved hydrated emulsifier compositions and their method of preparation. In addition to the powdered hydrated -emulsifiers dis- closed and claimed in my prior application referred to above, this application describes and claims new methods for preparing the powdered hydrated emulsifiers, hy¬ drated emulsifier compositions including shortenings and/or flavoring agents, and methods for preparing the hydrated emulsifier compositions.
Description of the Prior Art
As set forth in my prior application, surface active agents (emulsifier) are commonly utilized in the food, cosmetic and industrial chemical industries for stabilizing and thereby enhancing the physical character¬ istics of various bakery products, cake icings, shorten¬ ings, whipped toppings, cosmetics, paints, and the like. While my prior invention was directed to minimal hydrates of emulsifiers and their method of preparation so as to yield powdered products exhibiting characteristics of functionality approaching those of the fully hydrated emulsifiers which were then commercially available, cer¬ tain unsolved problems in the emulsifier arts remain. It is with specific regard to a more complete solution of these problems that the present application is directed. For example, while my prior invention discloses and claims an economical and usable method for preparing powdered hydrated emulsifiers, I have now discovered new, alternative methods for their preparation. In addition, prior art literature as well as actual commercial usage of emulsifiers has recognized the de¬ sirability of providing and using stabilized shortenings containing surface active agents therein to produce what might be termed hydrated shortenings.
In this regard-attention is invited to U. S. Letters Patent No. 3,943,259 to Norris. Therein, a fluid short¬ ening is disclosed including an emulsifier in.-;a-stabilized dispersion. -In similar fashion U. S. Patent Noi,-3 9.93,580 to Galusky discloses a process for the continuous produc¬ tion of hydrated lipids in which the final productc.may .-• have a fat plus emulsifier phase in its most stable.*. crystalline form. Other prior art teachings of. shorten- ing-emulsifier compositions which are considered- o;be of interest include the following U. S. Letters Pat-ξϊnt: 3,671,459; 3,782,970; 3,785,993; 3,889,004; 3,.$58,03.3; 3,966,632 and 3,995,069. However, none of these pripr art teachings disclose or suggest either the.. reparation or use of powdered shortening-hydrated emulsifier ;.-_.- compositions.
Relatively modern developments in the food and .cos¬ metic industries have dealt with addition of flavoring agents to their products. For example, it is now quite common to add a butter flavoring to bread and cake ;pro- ducts and to add, for example, fruit flavors to cosmetics such as lipsticks. Such flavoring agents are normally added as a discrete ingredient during the commercial manufacture of the end use product. Particularly with regard to bakery mixes intended for private, in-the~ home, use, the addition of flavoring agents has proved to be. extremely difficult if not virtually impossible. The difficulties are primarily associated with the normal valatility of the flavoring agents and the fact that they must be packaged separately from the dry mix. In fact, I am not aware of any prior.art teaching where¬ by flavoring agents can be added in a dry> powdered or flaked, form to bakery mixes.
Accordingly, it is clear that there is a great need in the art not only for additional methods for preparing powdered hydrated emulsifiers, but also for improved hydrated emulsifier compositions containing shortenings and/or flavoring agents.
?- •' " SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
' ■_.- _ιl I I £The present invention relates to improved hydrated Z.. "-emulsifier compositions of the type suitable for use in **-:_•_ϊ"'-the food, cosmetic and industrial chemical industries 5 i-≤as well as their methods of preparation. Accordingly, the present invention comprises a method for the forma- - :-'a~t-i'6-_ of what may be termed "minimal hydrates" of emulsi- --ϊf&erέ or surfactant compositions as well as such co p- "-©gd€ions also including shortenings and/or flavoring 10 '-agent's. Insofar as the hydrated emulsifiers and their
--_ήethόd--**-bf preparation, per se, are involved, my presently - co-pending application referred to above is referred to and its disclosure is incorporated herein by reference. Further laboratory testing and experimentation has 15 revealed additional methods for preparing the hydrated emulsifiers in addition to the spray chilling method previously disclosed and claimed. More specifically, i-± has been determined that flaked and powdered hydrated emulsifiers can be prepared using a roller chiller or 20 a belt chiller process. The procedure is first to melt the chosen emulsifier or mixture of emulsifiers and then to add water to the heated emulsifier. This mixture is then blended until a substantially uniform, gel—like- mixture is obtained. This mixture is then applied, as ■ 25 by pouring, to either a roller chiller or a belt "chiller. A flaked hydrated emulsifier may then be removed from the chiller.
In order to obtain a powdered final product, the flaked emulsifier is next placed iή a freezer for about 30 one hour and then ground in a blender to obtain the powdered product. The free flowing powder resulting from this process comprises the powdered hydrated emul¬ sifier, the composition of which was described and claimed in my prior application. Specific examples relating to 35 this new method of preparation are presented hereinafter. At this point it should be noted that the application
of the water-emulsifier mixture to the chiller by pour¬ ing is but a preferred method for practicing the inven¬ tion. Other methods of application to the chiller, such as, for .example, spraying may also be utilized. In fact, it is believed that if the water-emulsifier is sprayed onto the chiller a powdered final product may be obtained without the necessity of grinding. Further¬ more, it is to be understood that the flaked hydrated emulsifier may be ground into a powder without the necessity of first freezing the flakes.
Yet another aspect of the improved hydrated emul¬ sifier compositions of this invention comprises powdered or flaked water dispersible shortening-hydrated emulsifier blends, and their method of preparation. As previously stated there is a great need for water dis¬ persible shortening blends, and I have now been success¬ ful in applying minimal hydrate techniques to prepare shortening blends comprising shortening, emulsifier and water of hydration. The shortening used can be any of a number of the commonly available products such as, for example, soybean oil, corn oil, peanut oil, cotton¬ seed oil, palm oil, coconut oil, lard, tallow or marine oils. Since the final shortening-hydrated emulsifier blend is to be presented in a flaked or powdered form, the shortening should be at least partially hydrogenated so as to provide a sufficiently hard blend. While as little as about 0.1% shortening may be present in the final shortening-hydrated emulsifier blend, a preferred blend would contain a shortening to hydrated emulsifier ratio of about 7:3. It is, of course, to be understood that the ratio of shortening to hydrated emulsifier will vary dependent upon the lipophilic,hydrophilic charac¬ teristics of the chosen emulsifier. Accordingly, analy¬ sis of the shortening-hydrated emulsifier blends will reflect about 2-15% by weight water of hydration, at least about 0.1% by weight shortening, and emulsifier. These shortening-hydrated emulsifier blends may be
prepared substantially in accord with the method des¬ cribed and claimed in my prior application and the new chiller method described herein. More specific examples concerning the composition of these blends, their method of preparation and their use are presented hereinafter. Yet another improved hydrated emulsifier composi¬ tion of these blends, their method of preparation and their use are presented hereinafter.
Yet another improved hydrated emulsifier composition of this invention comprises a flavored, hydrated emulsi¬ fier and its method of preparation. Briefly stated, these flavored, hydrated emulsifiers comprise flaked or powdered hydrated emulsifiers containing about 2-15% by weight water of hydration and about 0.1-30% by weight flavoring agent. Flavoring agents may be selected from any of the commercially available materials consisting of both natural and artificial flavors such as, for example, butter, butterscotch, chocolate, peppermint, orange, lemon, and others. While a specific example disclosing a preferred method for preparing the flavored, hydrated emulsifier is presented below, they may be prepared by spray chilling, roller chilling or belt chilling.
Finally, the improved hydrated emulsifier composi- tions of the present invention further comprise flavored, water dispersible, shortening-hydrated emulsifier blends and their method of preparation. These blends comprise a flaked or powdered hydrated emulsifier composition comprising about 2-15% by weight water of hydration, about 0.1-30% by weight flavoring agent, at least about 0.1% by weight shortening, and emulsifier. Specific examples of these flavored, water dispersible, shorten¬ ing-hydrated emulsifier blends as well as their method of preparation are presented hereinafter, and they, too, may be prepared by spray chilling, roller chilling or belt chilling.
The invention accordingly comprises several steps
and the relation of one or more of such steps with respect to each of the others, and the compositions possessing the features, properties and the relation of constituents which are exemplified in the following detailed disclosure, and the scope of the invention will be indicated in the claims.
The present invention relates to improved hydrated emulsifier compositions and their method of preparation. Such compositions are commonly used in the food, cosme¬ tic and industrial chemical industries. The following examples, then, are set forth in order to fully describe the compositions of the present invention and their methods of preparation.
One mole of distilled monoglyceride, made from fully hydrogenated fatty acid glycerol esters, containing 90% alpha monoglyceride, was reacted with 1/2 mold of succinic anhydride. The mixture was heated with stirring until maximum formation of the succinic half ester had occurred. TWO moles of water were added. The blend became quite viscous and gel-like. When the mixture was uniformly blended, it was applied to a roller chiller. This pro¬ duced an off-white flaked material which was then placed in a freezer for one hour. The frozen, flaked material was then ground in a Waring blender.
The hydrated emulsifier product obtained was a free- flowing white powder that passed through a standard twenty mesh screen. This product contained about 7% by weight water. The hydrated emulsifier prepared in accord with this Example I dispersed readily in cold water.
Further examples of the hydrated emulsifier compo-
sitions were prepared in accord with the roller chilling method of Example I. The resulting powdered hydrated emulsifier compositions thus prepared are presented be¬ low. All composition constituents are listed in weight percents.
Distilled Monoglyceride s 85% Ethoxylated Mono-diglycerides 3% Water 12%
Sodium Stearoyl 2 Lactylate 19% Polyoxyethylene Sorbitan Ester 19% Mono-diglycerides 57% Water 5%
Powdered hydrated emulsifier compositions were also produced by flaking the material onto a belt chiller and subsequently grinding the flakes into a powder. The following Examples IV and V depict powdered hydrated emulsifier compositions prepared as generally set forth in Example I but utilizing a belt chiller.
Distilled Monoglyceride 88% Ethoxylated Mono-diglycerides 3% Water 9%
Succinic half ester of glycerol monoesters 62.5% Monoglyceride 31.5%
In each of the above examples, the blended material was applied to the chiller by pouring, but the method of this invention is not limited thereby. The material could be sprayed onto the chiller, and this could result in obtaining a powdered product without the necessity of grinding in a blender. It should also be noted that the flaked material may be ground to a powder without first having frozen them.
The following examples are set forth in order to fully describe the method and the composition of improved hydrated emulsifier compositions of this invention com¬ prising powdered, water dispersible shortening-hydrated emulsifier blends.
A blend of twenty parts succinylated monoglyceride, ten parts distilled monoglyceride, forty-six and one half parts cottonseed flakes (Iodine value less than four) , and twenty-three and one half parts soybean oil (Iodine value 135) was heated to about 80°C and mixed. Water was added to this blend, and the mixture was sprayed into a cooling chamber where the material went from a temperature of about 80°C to about 20°C. The pro¬ duct obtained was free-flowing light yellow powder con- taining about 7% by weight water.
The emulsification properties of the shortening- hydrated emulsifier blend was tested by placing forty grams of the product into 120 grams of 22°C. The mini¬ mum amount of mixing needed to wet the powder was used. The mixture was then observed with no further mixing.
After approximately thirty minutes a noticeable swelling of the particles had occurred. After approximately one hour and thirty minutes the mixture was an emulsified paste. Yet another example of the powdered, water dispersible shortening-hydrated emulsifier blend of the present inven-
tion was prepared in accord with the spray chilling method of Example VI. The resulting shortening-hydrated emulsifier blend composition is presented below. All composition constituents are listed in weight percents.
Cottonseed Flakes 46.5%
Soybean Oil 23.5%
Propylene glycol monostearate 15.-0% These materials were heated to about 80°C and mixed. Water was added and the mixture was spray chilled, re¬ sulting in a final product containing about 6% water. The product obtained was a light yellow powder.
Palm Oil 49.2%
Cottonseed Flakes 36.3%
Polyoxye hylene sorbitan monostearate 9.5%
Hydrogenated Soybean Oil 86.5%
Ethoxylated Mono-diglycerides 7.5%
Hydrogenated Cottonseed Oil 79% Sodium Stearoyl 2 Lactylate 14%
The following example is given in order to illus¬ trate a method of utilizing the powdered, water disper-
sible shortening-hydrated emulsifier blend of this invention.
Commercial yellow layer cake was prepared using the shortening-hydrated emulsifier blend of Example VII. The cake mix was of the following composition:
Shortening-hydrated emulsifier blend 25 parts
Granulated sugar 602 parts
Cake flour 550 parts Milk powder 50 parts
Whole egg solids 21 parts
Egg white solids 9 parts
Sale 9 parts
Baking powder 35 parts Water 546 parts
The test cake was of very good overall quality.
The following example is set forth in order to fully describe a preferred composition for a flavored, hydrated emulsifier of this invention and its method of preparation.
Eighty-five parts monoglyceride was heated to about 75°C, and to this melt were added five parts butter flavor, four parts polyglycerate 60 and six parts water. when the resulting mixture was uniform it was applied by pouring onto a belt chiller. This produced white flaked material. The flaked material was placed in a freezer for about one hour and was then ground. The final pro¬ duct obtained was a free-flowing white powder that passed through a standard thirty mesh screen.
The flavored, hydrated emulsifier composition wetted
readily in cold water.
The following examples are set forth in order to fully describe improved hydrated emulsifier compositions of the presen/t invention comprising flavored, water dis- persible, shortening-hydrated emulsifier blends and their methods of preparation.
A flavored, water dispersible shortening-hydrated emulsifier blend was prepared from the following consti- tuents:
Butterscotch flavor 5 parts
Polyoxyethylene Sorbitan Monostearate 5 parts
Cottonseed Oil (Hydrogenated) 85 parts
Water 5 parts
The butterscotch flavor, emulsifier and water were blended together at ambient temperature. The shortening was melted to about 80°C in a separate vessel. The two liquids were pumped to a single spray nozzle that sprayed into a cooling chamber. The atomized product rapidly decreased in temperature from about 80°C to about 20°C. The product obtained was a free-flowing light yellow powder including about 5% water.
The emulsification properties of this flavored, water dispersible, shortening-hydrated emulsifier blend was tested in accord with the procedures of Example VI. The powder particles swelled after about forty-five minutes and emulsified in two hours.
Yet another flavored, water dispersible, shortening- hydrated emulsifier blend was prepared utilizing the following constituents:
Butter flavor 5 parts
Polyoxyethylene Sorbitan Monostearate 5 parts
Cottonseed Oil (Hydrogenated) 85 parts
Water . 5 parts
All four constituents were blended together at about 70°C and then applied to a belt chiller. This produced a light yellow flaked material. The flaked material was placed in a freezer for one hour and then ground to a powder. The powdered product obtained was a free-flowing off-white powder that passed through a standard thirty mesh screen. The product contained about 5% water and wetted readily in cold water.
Additional examples of flavored, water dispersible, shortening-hydrated emulsifier blends are presented below.
Garlic Oil .1 parts
Polyglycerate 60 14.9 parts
Cottonseed Oil (hydrogenated) 80 parts Water 5 parts
Butter flavor 30 parts
Polyglycerate 60 5 parts
Cottonseed Oil (hydrogenated) 58 parts Water 7 parts
While the above examples have been presented with specific relation to products in the food industry, it is to be understood that the method and composition of the invention is not to be limited thereby. Both the improved hydrated emulsifier compositions and their methods of preparation may be utilized in the production
of yeast raised baked goods, non-yeast raised baked goods, dairy products, creamers, cake icings, pudding, mayonnaise, cosmetics, paints and the like.
It will thus be seen that the object set forth above, among those made apparent from the preceding description are efficiently attained and since certain changes may be made in carrying out the above method and in the compo¬ sitions set forth without departing from the scope of the invention, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description shall be interpreted as illus¬ trative and not in a limiting sense.
It is also to be understood that the following claims are intended to cover all of the generic and specific features of the invention herein described, and all state- ments of the scope of the invention which, as a matter of language might be said to fall therebetween. Now that the invention has been described,